17 January 2017

Puerto Rican Debt in the News


Two of Puerto Rico’s New Overlords Are Accused of Helping Create Its Debt Crisis
16 Dec 2016
A control board, which has veto power over major Puerto Rican budget decisions, was created by Congress in June as the island foundered under $70 billion in public debt. Activists are calling for the resignation of two members of Puerto Rico’s fiscal control board, Ramon Gonzalez and Carlos Garcia, over the roles they previously played in boosting bank profits at the expense of the island’s financial health. Before they were appointed to the control board, Gonzalez and Garcia moved between top positions in Puerto Rico’s Government Development Bank (GDB), which issues the island’s government bonds, and Banco Santander, the Spanish-owned mega-bank that was buying and structuring the vast majority of those same obligations. Santander participated in the underwriting of $61.2 billion of the island’s $70 billion in debt.

As Puerto Rico’s debt rose, the island’s elected officials began pushing the burden of repayment onto the public. Beginning in 2009, then-Gov. Luis Fortuño instituted major austerity measures, laying off tens of thousands of public employees. “Santander and other banks purposefully manipulated a government desperate to avoid financial ruin and pushed Puerto Ricans deeper and deeper into nearly unrecoverable poverty.” 

Puerto Rico: Huge blackout after power plant fire
21 Sep 2016
A big fire at a power plant has left 1.5 million people without electricity in the US territory of Puerto Rico. The fire affected two transmission lines and caused the collapse of the electricity system across the island. Puerto Rico's Electric Power Authority has been undergoing restructuring and is seeking funds to update what it says is outdated equipment. The cause of the fire is still unclear. The blackout also caused 15 fires across Puerto Rico as a result of malfunctioning generators.

White House Announces Puerto Rico Oversight Board Membership
01 Sep 2016
The White House is announcing members of Puerto Rico's fiscal oversight board established as part of legislation to address the US territory’s debt crisis. The board is responsible for triggering debt restructuring on the island and approving the Governor's budget. Four of the seven board members are Puerto Rican. The legislation additionally put a stay on debt lawsuits against Puerto Rico and granted the island tools to restructure all of its debt. Puerto Rico owes over $70 billion overall and defaulted on $2 billion in debt on July 1. The island is in the midst of a decade-long recession, has an unemployment rate more than double the national rate and nearly half its population lives in poverty.

Obama Appoints Social Security Critic to Fix Puerto Rico’s Budget
31 Aug 2016
Andrew Biggs, an American Enterprise Institute resident scholar and architect of conservative efforts to cut and privatize Social Security, has been named by President Obama to a seven-member fiscal oversight board for the debt-ridden U.S. territory of Puerto Rico. The oversight board is tasked with balancing Puerto Rico’s budget and pursuing all avenues to pay off its massive debt, including cuts to the island’s education, police, and health care systems.

Puerto Rico to default on $779m debt
01 Jul 2016
Puerto Rico announced on Friday that it would default on $779m (£588m) of debt. Debt payments totaling just over $2bn were due on Friday. US President Barack Obama signed a bill into law on Thursday giving the island access to a debt restructuring process and halting any litigation arising from defaults. As part of the US law, the island's finances will soon come under a US federal oversight board. Puerto Rico has been struggling to make payments on its $70bn debt load.

Treasury Secretary Reminds Senate It Has 4 Days Before Puerto Rico Defaults On More Debt
27 Jun 2016
Treasury Secretary Jack Lew sounded the alarm Monday on the looming deadline for the Senate to pass legislation to help Puerto Rico with its debt crisis. The commonwealth owes a $2 billion debt payment on July 1, and its government has said it will default. Without action, Puerto Rico could be exposed to a flurry of lawsuits, which could lead to hospital closures and squeeze the island’s police force, education system and other services. The House has passed a bill to help the island restructure its debt, but the Senate has yet to vote on it.

House Passes Puerto Rico Oversight, Management, and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA)
09 Jun 2016
The U.S. House of Representatives has passed legislation to provide restructuring authority for Puerto Rico’s massive debt and establish an oversight board to address the territory’s fiscal crisis. Puerto Rico faces a debt payment on July 1 of roughly $1.8 billion.

Sanders to Senate Dems: Do You Stand with Puerto Rico or with Wall Street?
23 May 2016
As a U.S. House committee prepares to take up the Puerto Rico Oversight, Management and Economic Stability Act (PROMESA) on Tuesday, Bernie Sanders opposes the bill. PROMESA would allow Puerto Rico to restructure $72 billion in debt, while establishing an unelected outside control board to oversee the territory's fiscal matters—a top demand from Republicans. The board would not be subject to any Puerto Rican authority and is bound by PROMESA to make decisions that are in the interests of Puerto Rico’s creditors. Sanders blasted the creation of this "undemocratic board," which he said "would have the power to slash pensions, cut education and health care, and increase taxes on working families in Puerto Rico."

Republicans, Obama Administration Reach Agreement on Puerto Rico Restructuring Bill
19 May 2016
WASHINGTON—House Republicans reached an agreement with the Obama administration to provide Puerto Rico a path to restructure its $70 billion debt load. The bill would offer the island a legal out similar to bankruptcy and wouldn’t commit any federal money, a critical requirement to winning support of conservatives. Puerto Rico has defaulted on different classes of bonds, including earlier this month when it missed most of a $422 million payment, and faces payments totaling $2 billion on July 1.

This Nuyorican Superhero Represents Hope And Solidarity For Puerto Ricans
17 May 2016
Puerto Rico just got a kickass Afro-boricua superhero! Her name is name is La Borinqueña, and she’s on a mission to help the Puerto Rican community unite and fight for social justice. Named after Puerto Rico’s national anthem, La Borinqueña was created by Brooklyn-based artist and writer Edgardo Miranda-Rodriguez in response to the island’s current financial crisis and is intended to be a symbol of hope and solidarity. The cover art for the comic book, due out this fall, features La Borinqueña soaring above fellow Puerto Ricans Sonia Sotomayor, Arturo Schomburg, Lolita Lebron, Felicita Mendez, Hector Lavoe, among others.




Sanders Blasts 'Vulture Capitalists' and Colonialism in Puerto Rico
16 May 2016
Campaigning in Puerto Rico on Monday, Bernie Sanders railed against the "colonial-like relationship" that has allowed Wall Street "vulture capitalists" to profit off the debt-stricken territory's economic crisis. "It is unacceptable to me for the United States government to treat Puerto Rico like a colony during a time when its people are facing the worst fiscal and economic crisis in its history," the presidential hopeful declared in a rousing speech at a packed town hall in San Juan. "What vulture funds on Wall Street are demanding is that Puerto Rico fire teachers, close schools, cut pensions and abolish the minimum wage so that they can reap huge profits off the suffering and misery of the children and the people of Puerto Rico," Sanders said. "We cannot allow that to happen. We will not allow that to happen."

John Oliver explains Puerto Rico’s debt crisis.

Puerto Rico to default on debt payment after talks fail
02 May 2016
Puerto Rico has halted a $422m debt payment due on Monday after talks to ease the US territory's crisis ended without a deal. Governor Alejandro Garcia Padilla said in a televised speech he had issued an executive order suspending payments. A further debt payment of $1.9bn is due in July. Some creditors have argued that the territory has exaggerated its crisis. Congress is in recess until the week of 9 May.

Puerto Rico’s House Passes Emergency Debt Moratorium Bill
06 Apr 2016
Puerto Rico’s House of Representatives early on Wednesday passed an emergency bill allowing the government to halt payments on its debt, throwing into doubt broader restructuring plans to stave off a financial collapse of the U.S. Commonwealth. The measure would allow Governor Alejandro Garcia Padilla to declare a moratorium on any debt payment he deems necessary, and also alter the structure of the Government Development Bank. Garcia Padilla is expected to quickly sign the bill into law. Burdened by a $70 billion debt load it says it cannot pay and a 45 percent poverty rate that has led to a steady exodus of its American citizens to the mainland, Puerto Rico faces economic collapse without a solution that either changes laws and/or involves an agreement with creditors. The introduction of the law had drawn a quick rebuke from creditors who hold the Puerto Rican government’s General Obligation debt.

Plan to Rescue Puerto Rico Advances, Led by House Republicans
24 Mar 2016
Politicians in Washington are coalescing around a financial plan to rescue Puerto Rico, just weeks before an expected major default on bond payments that would spread more turmoil through the island’s shaky economy. The plan would not grant Puerto Rico’s most fervent request: permission to restructure its entire $72 billion debt in bankruptcy. It would, however, give the island certain crucial tools that bankruptcy proceedings can offer — but only if it first comes under close federal oversight. The creation of such a board has been highly controversial on the island, where some residents and officials have called it an act of “colonialism”. If Puerto Rican officials are unable to make the budget balance with existing resources, the oversight board would have the power to do it for them — which could mean cuts in services. Much of the rescue package has been drafted in the House Natural Resources Committee under its chairman, Rob Bishop of Utah. Although the Natural Resources Committee might seem an odd place to resolve an offshore financial collapse, the committee has jurisdiction over America’s territories, which include Puerto Rico.

How Free Electricity Helped Dig $9 Billion Hole in Puerto Rico
01 Feb 2016
The power authority has been giving free power to all 78 of Puerto Rico’s municipalities, to many of its government-owned enterprises, even to some for-profit businesses — although not to its citizens. It has done so for decades, even as it has sunk deeper and deeper in debt, borrowing billions just to stay afloat. Now, however, the island’s government is running out of cash, facing a total debt of $72 billion and already defaulting on some bonds — and an effort is underway to limit the free electricity. The free power dates from 1941. Hearings will begin to determine who and what are to blame for the authority’s larger problems, especially its ancient and inefficient power plants, among the last in North America to burn oil. Culprits are expected to include the authority’s secretive purchasing managers, elected officials who wasted money on natural gas pipelines that were scrapped and an institutional hostility to wind and solar power that is hard to fathom on a breezy island where the sun shines most days.

 Faced with $9M in Debt, Puerto Rico’s Utility Appeals for Restructuring
28 Jan 2016
Puerto Rico’s main electricity provider and its bondholders are continuing negotiations to restructure almost $9 million in debt after failing to meet a deadline Friday that caused a tentative pact reached last month to be terminated. The restructuring support agreement between the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and its creditors expired after lawmakers failed to pass legislation by Friday to enable Prepa, as the agency is known, to lower its obligations and implement a new customer surcharge. In a sign of progress, banks that finance its fuel purchases and the utility entered into a forbearance agreement on Sunday that keeps their negotiations out of court through Feb. 12.

Faced with $9M in Debt, Puerto Rico’s Utility Appeals for Restructuring
28 Jan 2016
Puerto Rico’s main electricity provider and its bondholders are continuing negotiations to restructure almost $9 million in debt after failing to meet a deadline Friday that caused a tentative pact reached last month to be terminated. The restructuring support agreement between the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority and its creditors expired after lawmakers failed to pass legislation by Friday to enable Prepa, as the agency is known, to lower its obligations and implement a new customer surcharge. In a sign of progress, banks that finance its fuel purchases and the utility entered into a forbearance agreement on Sunday that keeps their negotiations out of court through Feb. 12.

Puerto Rico: US calls for creditors to make sacrifices
20 Jan 2016
US Treasury Secretary Jacob Lew urged Puerto Rico's creditors to make sacrifices that would allow the territory to restructure its debt. Mr. Lew said that unless both sides made sacrifices, "there is no path out of insolvency and back to growth." Puerto Rico is in its tenth year of rescission and struggling to cope with $70bn in debt. Negotiations between the Puerto Rican government and creditors have failed. Puerto Rico defaulted on part of its debt at the beginning of January and is on track to miss larger payments in the coming months. Puerto Rico does not have access to Chapter 9 of the US bankruptcy code, the provision that allowed cities such as Detroit to restructure their debts. Puerto Rico, with support from President Obama, is pushing Congress to change that law and grant them permission to use the Chapter 9 provision. In 2015 a US judge struck down a law passed by the Puerto Rican government that would have allowed it to restructure its debt.

Puerto Rico misses second major debt payment as economy struggles
05 Jan 2016
Puerto Rico has defaulted for the second time in five months, as the island struggles with massive debt obligations and a flagging economy. Last week, the island's governor said it would pay most, but not all, of the nearly $1bn it owed. Overall, the island has a total debt load of about $70bn, which Governor Padilla has said the island cannot pay. "This is not political rhetoric, this is mathematic," Mr. Padilla said. "It's very simple, we don't have the money to pay".

Governor Alejandro Padilla has called for the island to be granted bankruptcy rights like those on the mainland. The US Congress is set to debate the issue in the coming weeks. In recent months, the governor has repeatedly warned of a humanitarian crisis that could unfold and has called on the US Congress to extend bankruptcy protections to the island. US states and territories cannot declare bankruptcy under federal law. Puerto Rico's public utilities are heavily debt-burdened, but are not allowed the bankruptcy rights that their mainland counterparts are afforded.

The island has been called the "Greece of the Caribbean”. The flagging economy and uncertainty is driving mass emigration, with an average of about 230 people leaving per day. Unemployment on the island stands at 12.5% - around twice that of the US - and around 45% of people living in poverty. The island faces a bill of around $400m due in February and a much larger $1.9bn bill in July.

Inside the Billion-Dollar Battle for Puerto Rico’s Future
19 Dec 2015
On the surface, it is a battle over whether Puerto Rico should be granted bankruptcy protections, putting at risk tens of billions of dollars from investors around the country. But it is also testing the power of an ascendant class of ultrarich Americans to steer the fate of a territory that is home to more than three million fellow citizens. The investors with a stake in the outcome are some of the wealthiest people in America.

For decades, the island had been borrowing money to pay its bills. Puerto Rico’s bonds were particularly attractive to mutual funds because they were exempt from federal, state and local taxes in all 50 states. But in 2013, after the island’s general obligation bonds were downgraded, they caught the attention of a different sort of investor: hedge funds specializing in distressed assets. These funds began buying up the debt at a steep discount, confident that this was a bet they could not lose. Not only were the bonds guaranteed by the Puerto Rican Constitution, but under a wrinkle of federal law, the island’s public corporations and municipalities — unlike those of the 50 states — do not have bankruptcy as a recourse.  Drawn by the promise of what was a 20 percent return, Mr. Paulson’s firm purchased bonds in March 2014, as did Appaloosa Management, founded by David Tepper; Marathon Asset Management; BlueMountain Capital Management; and Monarch Alternative Capital. Puerto Rico now owes its creditors in excess of $70 billion, as much as a third of it is owed to hedge funds.

Puerto Rico narrowly avoids default
01 Dec 2015
Puerto Rico has narrowly avoided a default by making a last minute payment on its outstanding debt. The Government Development Bank made a $355m (£235m) payment that was due to creditors on Tuesday. Despite the move the territory is struggling to find money for government services and future debt payments. The Governor said the territory is facing a situation where it must decide between defaulting- failing to make the payments on its debt- or cutting public services. Though Puerto Rico is a territory of the US it is not entitled to restructure its debt in the same way that state and city governments are. Representatives from Puerto Rico - including the Governor - have been making the case that the island should be allowed to undertake the same process Detroit used when it faced bankruptcy.

Puerto Rico economy: Government defaults on bond payment
04 Aug 2015
Puerto Rico has confirmed that it failed to make a debt payment at the weekend, in the latest sign of the economic crisis in the US territory. The government said it did not have the funds available to pay more than $50m (£32m) due on bonds. Puerto Rico's governor said in June that the island's debts of more than $70bn were unpayable and that its finances needed restructuring. Economists say that Puerto Rico's financial woes run deep and will take years to sort out .

Puerto Rico has $72bn (£46bn) of public debt. That makes it by far the most indebted territory or state per capita in the United States. Unemployment is at almost 14% - more than double the national average - and over the last decade there has been little or no growth, resulting in the economy teetering on the brink of oblivion.  The island has been losing 1% (around 30,000 people) a year to Florida and other parts of the US. And it is mainly the economically active young who are leaving.


13 January 2017

Wealth Gap Series


This series will explore the widening Wealth Gap and its impact on class and race relations, excerpting heavily from Thomas Piketty, Professor at the Paris School of Economics, who has explored the structural cause of the wealth gap in his book Capital in the Twenty-First Century published in 2014. He created quite a stir, getting both rave reviews and harsh critiques. He brought the issue of a widening wealth gap to the limelight and has shown how war mitigated extreme wealth gaps in the past. And without a discussion and resolution, war may again mitigate the current wealth gap extreme.

Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, Professor Paris School of Economics, 2014, Excerpts

The central thesis of this book is that a small gap between the return on capital and the rate of income growth can in the long run have powerful and destabilizing effects on the structure and dynamics of social inequality.

The concentration of wealth and prospects for economic growth lie at the heart of political economy. The main driver of inequality – the tendency of returns on capital to exceed the rate of income growth – generates extreme inequalities that stir discontent and undermine democratic values.

There is no fundamental reason why we should believe that growth is automatically balanced. We should put the question of inequality back at the center of economic analysis and begin asking questions first raised in the nineteenth century. For far too long, economists have neglected the distribution of wealth.




Obama’s Farewell Address, Excerpts
10 Jan 2017
Our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of a growing middle class, and ladders for folks who want to get into the middle class.

Stark inequality is corrosive to our democratic idea. While the top 1 percent has amassed a bigger share of wealth and income, too many of our families in inner cities and in rural counties have been left behind. Convinced that the game is fixed against them. That their government only serves the interest of the powerful. That’s a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics.

If every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and an undeserving minority, then workers of all shades are going to be left fighting for scraps while the wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves.

Britain's inequality map - stark and growing
02 Dec 2016
Andy Haldane, the Bank of England's chief economist is not only worried about the inequality of those on the lowest incomes versus the very rich, but also with those regions which have fallen behind in the race for economic growth since the financial crisis. Most concerning for a government which has pledged to make the economy work "for all" - which presumably means across geographies as well as income bands - is that the issue is becoming more acute.

UK one of the most unequal countries, says Oxfam
13 Sep 2016
The richest 1% of the UK population owns more than 20 times the wealth of the poorest fifth, according to Oxfam. That made Britain one of the most unequal countries in the developed world and contributed to the vote for Brexit, the charity said. The report said many people in the UK felt locked out of politics and economic opportunity. Rachael Orr, head of Oxfam's UK Program, said: "Inequality is a massive barrier to tackling poverty and has created an economy that clearly isn't working for everyone."

Wealth Over Work
23 Mar 2014
It seems safe to say that “Capital in the Twenty-First Century,” the magnum opus of the French economist Thomas Piketty, will be the most important economics book of the year — and maybe of the decade. Mr. Piketty, arguably the world’s leading expert on income and wealth inequality, does more than document the growing concentration of income in the hands of a small economic elite. He also makes a powerful case that we’re on the way back to “patrimonial capitalism,” in which the commanding heights of the economy are dominated not just by wealth, but also by inherited wealth, in which birth matters more than effort and talent.


Wikipedia: Wealth inequality in the United States
The rich are accumulating more assets while the middle and working classes are just getting by. Currently, the richest 1% hold about 38% of all privately held wealth in the United States while the bottom 90% held 73% of all debt. According to the New York Times, the "richest 1 percent in the United States now own more wealth than the bottom 90 percent".

The distributive nature of tax policy has been suggested by some economists and politicians such as Emmanuel Saez, Thomas Piketty, and Barack Obama to perpetuate economic inequality in America by steering large sums of wealth into the hands of the wealthiest Americans. This claim has created much controversy and debate within the academic and political spheres.

Racial disparities: There are many causes, but inheritance might be the most important. Inheritance can directly link the disadvantaged economic position and prospects of today's blacks to the disadvantaged positions of their parents' and grandparents' generations.

In Capital in the Twenty-First Century, French economist Thomas Piketty argues that "extremely high levels" of wealth inequality are "incompatible with the meritocratic values and principles of social justice fundamental to modern democratic societies" and that "the risk of a drift towards oligarchy is real and gives little reason for optimism about where the United States is headed.




12 January 2017

Wealth Gap



Capital in the Twenty-First Century by Thomas Piketty, 2014, Excerpts

Physical reality of inequality is visible to the naked eye. Peasant and noble, worker and factory owner, waiter and banker: each has his or her own unique vantage point and sees important aspects of how other people live and what relations of power and domination exist between social groups, and these observations shape each person’s judgment of what is and is not just. There is a fundamentally subjective and psychological dimension to inequality, which inevitably gives rise to political conflict.

From 1977 to 2007, the richest 10 percent appropriated three-quarters of the growth. The richest 1 percent alone absorbed nearly 60 percent of the total increase in US national income in this period. In the United States, income inequality in 2000-2010 regained the record levels observed in 1910-1920. Capital ownership is increasingly concentrated once again today.

An economy and society cannot continue functioning indefinitely with such extreme divergence between social groups. The widening wealth gap raises many questions as to its long term consequences. The way this large divergence of income distribution has evolved demands an explanation.

The unlimited growth of global wealth inequality, which is currently increasing at a rate that cannot be sustained in the long run, ought to worry even the most fervent champions of the self-regulated market. It is an illusion to think that the laws of the market economy ensure that inequality of wealth will decrease and harmonious stability will be achieved.


http://inequality.org/income-inequality/

30 December 2016

Puerto Rico Series

This is a series about another country getting into financial difficulties. I previously chronicled Zimbabwe as it went through a massive inflationary period that lasted years into the realm of ridiculousness and is still suffering the aftermath. It eventually pushed Zimbabwe into China’s camp. Greece is still dealing with the impact of austerity measures to pay debt [Greek Series]. And now, Puerto Rico appears on the horizon as the next candidate for debt default, a territory of the United States. Puerto Rico is referred to as the “Greece of the Caribbean”, somewhat ironic. What if austerity measures in Puerto Rico appear punitive, as they do in Greece, and everywhere else. How will the Puerto Ricans respond? Puerto Ricans have clashed with the United States before, an assassination attempt of President Truman and fired shots in the House of Representatives, wounding five lawmakers.

In this series, I’ll excerpts from a few books [War Against All Puerto Ricans being a primary source] and laying some groundwork of historical reference. The Puerto Rican debt crisis may turn into a headline dominating issue. Its implications could resonate far and wide through Latin America. There are significant Puerto Rican communities in the United States, especially in NYC, Bay Area, and Hawaii. Puerto Ricans span all ethnicities, all colors. This should prove to be an interesting series.


22 December 2016

Gag Law 1948



War Against All Puerto Ricans by Nelson Denis, 2015, Excerpts


On March 9, 1948, J. Edgar Hoover placed the Nationalist Party on the FBI list of organizations working to subvert the US government. The passage of Public Law 53 (the Gag Law) was nearly a word-for-word translation of Section 2 of the Anti-Communist US Smith Act, and it authorized police and FBI to stop anyone on the street and to invade any Puerto Rican home. If the police found a Puerto Rican flag, the residents could all be arrested and jailed.



21 December 2016

Albizu Returns to Puerto Rico – 1947



War Against All Puerto Ricans by Nelson Denis, 2015, Excerpts

On December 11, 1947, he boarded the SS Kathryn and returned to Puerto Rico. From the moment Albizu set foot in San Juan, Hoover became obsessed with following and recording his every movement. Thousands of Puerto Ricans and dozens of FBI agents met Albizu at the dock. They packed into San Juan cathedral and followed him in a heaving mass to Sixto Excobar Stadium, where he would address a standing-room only crowd of 14,000. Albizu began his speech: “My name is Pedro Albizu Campos. You are my people. And this is our island.” A roar filled the stadium, For over an hour, he thundered about independence. Every newspaper on the island reported Albizu’s dramatic return.


Juan Emilio Viguie filmed Albizu’s return on the SS Kathryn, the tumultuous crowds, the march down Calle San Augustin, the flags, the motorcades, the speech to 14,000 supporters at Sixto Escobar Stadium. He made a short newsreel of it, Recibermiento a Don Pedro (Reception of Don Pedro). 



20 December 2016

Albizu Imprisonment – 1937 to1943



War Against All Puerto Ricans by Nelson Denis, 2015, Excerpts

Albizu was flown to the US penitentiary in Atlanta on June 7, 1937.

He worked in the prison library. One day in the library he encountered an unusual book, published by General Smedley Butler in 1935 – War is a Racket. Butler had been a marine for thirty-three years and was the most decorated marine in US history. He had received sixteen medals, five for heroism, and was one of only nineteen men to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor twice. He retired as major general and, for a brief period, was the highest-ranking commander in the US Marine Corps. Butler’s father had been a US congressman for thirty-one years and had chaired the House of Naval Affairs Committee.
 “I helped make Mexico safe for American oil interests in 1914. I helped make Haiti and Cuba a decent place for the National City Bank boys. I helped in the raping of a dozen Central American republics for the benefit of Wall Street. I helped purify Nicaragua for the international banking house of Brown Brothers in 1909-1912. I brought light to the Dominican Republic for American sugar interest in 1916. In short, I was a racketeer, a gangster for capitalism.”


War is a Racket confirmed everything Albizu had seen in Puerto Rico. On June 3, 1943, Albizu was released on probation in New York City. He had been in prison for over seven years.